Energy integration and interaction between buildings and vehicles: A state-of-the-art review
Clean power production, buildings, and transportation are key areas for climate change mitigation. Their tighter integration decreases not only the emissions, but also the energy consumption of buildings and transportation. Energy integration and interactions between buildings and vehicles are dependent on the type of building, vehicle, and renewable energy system, as well as the local climatic conditions. The current academic literature does not provide a systematic analysis of this topic. In the study, different energy management systems and advanced energy control strategies have been formulated to study such interactions both from a building and a vehicle perspective. Furthermore, technical solutions have been systematically reviewed in terms of the enhancement of energy interaction capabilities, in particular from the standpoint of renewable energy systems, energy/fuel charging facilities, and control strategies. Assessment criteria employed in the review of solutions include grid interaction, annual operational cost, annual net CO2 emissions, and annual matching capability. The literature review identifies several technical challenges that need further consideration such as capacity expansion and power fluctuation of the electric grid, low efficiency of heat recovered from electricity generation, and depreciation of vehicles. The future outlook and potential for the energy interaction networks between buildings and vehicles have also been presented.