Opportunities in India
Curbing growth in the energy demand of India’s building sector offers more than 8% of global building energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. About 90% of this mitigation potential is related to achieving energy savings in new buildings, while retrofitting existing buildings offers just under 10% of total energy savings potential. Unchecked, however, energy demand coupled with rapid urbanization could result in an eight-fold increase in demand by 2030. Building energy consumption represents about 14% of total delivered energy in India and is experiencing the fastest growth in both floor area and energy demand globally. About 70% of the growth in building energy demand is driven by the residential sector, which currently is not covered by mandatory building energy performance regulations.
Tools for Code Enforcement and Compliance
In 2018 the Bureau of Energy Efficiency developed a draft Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC-R) for residential buildings and named It as Eco Niwas Samhita (ENS). This code is in the voluntary phase. However, voluntary energy-efficiency measures in the residential sector may make it difficult to achieve policy goals. Adoption and effective implementation of the ENS could reduce cooling energy demand by up to 30% by 2030 with overall energy-related GHG mitigation potential of about 300MtCO2. GBPN is therefore supporting adoption of ENS in India by designing an ENS compliance tool-kit that connects with all corresponding administrative levels of government (Central-State-Municipality) so there are consistent standards on ENS compliance strategies across the nation when adopted by all states.
Facilitating Eco-Niwas Samhita (ENS) Implementation in Affordable Housing
The affordable urban housing sector in India represents around 95% of the total national housing demand. Yet there is a lack of focus on the implementation of the ENS in this sector. Major government programs have been launched to try to address the demand for more than 18 million urban housing units. With support from GBPN, the Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE) developed a strategy for ensuring that the government’s flagship affordable urban housing program (PMAY-U) could implement the new ENS code in its new housing developments. Succeeding in this endeavor would provide a strong scale-effect for government agencies and the rest of the housing market to voluntarily adopt the ENS, which in turn will reduce energy demand for cooling by about 30% by 2030 compared to business as usual.
Deemed to comply design compliance guidelines and materials data-base
To make ENS code implementation easier for municipalities, and compliance easier for developers GBPN local expert partner CEPT University Ahmedabad developed ‘deemed to comply’ compliance data to make it easier for developers of affordable housing and local government to adopt ENS code requirements, and data on appropriate construction materials that meet code performance requirements. CEPT also identified climate zones that are conducive or difficult for achieving ENS performance requirements in order to help understand where the construction costs for compliance are likely to increase, and where no-cost approaches can be implemented.
GBPN. (2012). Best practice policies for low energy and carbon buildings. A scenario analysis. Research Report, May. Paris: Center for Climate Change and Sustainable Policy (3CSEP) for the Global Buildings Performance Network (GBPN).
Diddi, S. (2017). Scenarios of energy conservation building code (ECBC) in India. Bureau of Energy Efficiency Presentation. Retrieved from http://ace-e2.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/S1-P1_Saurabh_Scenario-of-ECBC-in-India.pdf
Rawal, R., & Shulka, Y. (2014). Residential buildings in India: Energy use projections and savings. Paris: Global Building Performance Network (GBPN).
Based on Emissions Factor for India Electricity of 0.82tCO2/MWh (Central Electricity Authority, Indian Ministry of Power).